This page last modified: Jan 12 2005
This document describes implementation details of Deft, and is
intended for programmers. This description is for the xinetd socket
version of Deft. The full gridding version will be substantially
Deft is implemented in Perl, and uses Perl's eval() to run Deft
Each statement in the special routine main: is run in a separate
process. There are two types of Deft statements in main.
1) Deft API subroutines which are part of the Deft API library, and
must conform to certain requirements. We'll explain more below, but
Deft API functions must unwind each record, process the record, and
rewind the completed record. Deft API routines may have internal state
2) Non-main Deft subroutines are 'user written' subroutines in
the user's Deft script. These are called from main, however, Deft
knows they are user written and performs an unwind before calling the
user subroutine for a single record, and then rewinds the result. It
is impossible for user written subroutines to have state
information. (see footnote 1.)
There are a couple of important low level, internal subroutines which
you should be aware of due to their importance in understanding the
concepts and implementation of Deft.
'rewind' is a non-API, low level internal function. It freezes
(freeze() is part of the Storable Perl module) a special global hash
'eenv' (execution environment), and writes the size in bytes to
stdout, then writes frozen string to stdout.
'unwind' is a non-API, low level, internal function which reads stdin
for the number of bytes N. Then it reads a string of N bytes length
from stdin. The string is thawed, and assigned a special internal hash
Each unwind-rewind pair is in a separate process, so that 'eenv'
contains only one record, and this record is the current record being
operated on by this process.
Aside from stdin and stdout, processes have no idea of the existence
of other processes.
When Deft launches (deft.pl), the first phase is parsing the Deft
script. The Deft subroutine main: is special. Each statment in main:
will be a separate Deft process. The last statement to execute (the
last statement in main:) is kept for execution by deft.pl. We'll
explain why later. The rest of the statements are shoved into an array
(and frozen?). This the end of the parse phase.
The pre-execution (process chain creation) phase starts with Deft.pl
opening a socket to port 9000 where xinetd is waiting to launch
deftd.pl. The array of Deft statements is written to the stdin of
deftd.pl. Having written the frozen array of statements, the first
process, deft.pl, reverses stdin and stdout. The new process
(deftd.pl) shifts the array (pulling off the last statement/element,
making the array shorter). Then deftd.pl opens its stdout to xinetd,
and the process continues. Each new process passes the ever-shorter
array of Deft statements up the line, then reverses stdin and stdout.
In this way a chain of instances (processes) of deftd.pl come into
existence, each with one Deft statement. The final process evals its
Deft statment, and rewinds the resulting record onto stdout. Remember,
the direction of the sockets has changed, and data comes down the
chain that the code went up. The final process (last process created,
the first process to start eval'ing its Deft statement) is the only
one that does not unwind. All the others iterate through an
unwind-eval-rewind loop until no records remain.
When each process has no more records to unwind, it exits.
The original process in the chain (the first process created, deft.pl)
prints the results of its Deft statement to stdout, not in frozen
(rewind) form, but just as a plain, old string. Generally, the final
statement is a template render call. The only process with stdout
available to the user is the original process, and thus the original
process must eval the last Deft statement. Since Deft might spawn
processes across many machines, only the original process is
guaranteed to be on the same machine as the user (or on the same
machine as the CGI call if Deft is being used in a CGI context).
The Deft data record has a very simple format. Fields (columns) in the
record are named and stored symbolically. Values have Perl's weak type
casting. Internal API subroutines store fields are elements of the
hash eenv. For example, an API subroutine that runs a SQL select
statement will collect the columns that resulted from the query and
put each fetched value into an element of eenv with the same name as
the corresponding database field. Each iteration of the API
subroutines internal loop unwinds (filling eenv), performs a process
that (probably) changes eenv, then rewinds (freezing eenv and sending
it to the next process). The internal structure of API subroutines is
standard procedural Perl. The power of Deft is that users invoke Deft
API subroutines in a declarative context. Unwind and rewind are called
inside API subroutines.
In user written Deft subroutines, fields are any Perl scalar. Each
element of the hash eenv is instantiated as a Perl scalar each time a
user written subroutine is evaluated (via the $$var construct). After
the subroutine is evaluated, all the scalars are put back into eenv
and rewind is called. Turning eenv into scalars enables the Deft
script to create new fields, and to use all of Perl's abilities to
modify fields in the record. The action of the user written subroutine
is applied to each record in the stream, with no state
information. You could not write a 'sum' or 'count' user subroutine
since there is no way to accumulate a running total. Unwind and rewind
are called outside of user written subroutines.
1. Since Deft is open source, and since the API standards are
relatively simple, it is possible for 'users' to add subroutines to
the Deft API library. We'll consider these subroutines part of the
Deft API (in a practical sense.)